Glossary

A damaging oxidized product of proteins and glucose.  Formed when glucose is at high levels, interacts with proteins, and becomes oxidized.  AGEs damage proteins, enzymes, DNA, and hormonal receptor sites on the surface of our cells.  (Source:  The Paleo Solution)

The basic building blocks of protein.  our bodies use 21 of them, 8 of which are essential (i.e. we can’t make them, but get them from food.)

Helps with brain repair and exercise is one of the most potent stimulants for its production.

CAD: Coronary Artery Disease

The force generated is sufficient to overcome the resistance, and the muscle shortens as it contracts.  This is what most people think of as a muscle contraction.  (Ex:  the up-phase of the bicep curl.)  (Source:  The Science and Practice of Strength Training)

Hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to stress.  It raises blood sugar levels.  Releases glucose and fatty acids from the liver, blunts insulin sensitivity, regulates blood pressure, and acts as an anti-inflammatory by lowering the activity of the immune system.  Continuously elevated levels of cortisol, a symptom of “chronic stress”, can lead to (1):

  • Impaired cognitive performance
  • Suppressed thyroid function
  • Blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia
  • Decreased bone density
  • Decrease in muscle tissue
  • Higher blood pressure
  • Lowered immunity and inflammatory responses in the body, slowed wound healing, and other health consequences
  • Increased abdominal fat, which is associated with a greater amount of health problems than fat deposited in other areas of the body. Some of the health problems associated with increased stomach fat are heart attacksstrokes, the development of metabolic syndrome, higher levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and lower levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), which can lead to other health problems!

Workout goal is to move as quickly as possible through rounds of movements within a given time-frame (usually 8-20 minutes).

The force generated is insufficient to overcome the external load on the muscle and the muscle fibers lengthen as they contract.  An eccentric contraction is used as a means of decelerating a body part or object, or lowering a load gently rather than letting it drop.  (Ex:  Landing phase of jumping / gripping a heavy barbell / downhill running / eccentric pull ups.)

The motivational value of food.  Specifically, the ability of a food to reinforce behavior.

”The food reward hypothesis of obesity states that the reward (reinforcing, motivational) and hedonic (pleasure, palatability) value of food influence food intake and body fatness, contributing to the development of obesity.” – Whole Health Source 

Helps normalize blood sugar and energy levels between meals by releasing energy from the liver and allowing us to better access our body fat for energy.  Glucagon is the counter-hormone to insulin and prompts the release of glucose from the liver, as well as free fatty acids from fat stores.  (Source:  The Paleo Solution)

GMO: Genetically Modified Organism

Carries lipids and cholesterol from the peripheral body back to the liver for reprocessing. Often called the “good” cholesterol, though this is misleading.

Critical for maintaining lean body mass, burning fat, and even fixing DNA damage.  Its secretion is dramatically improved by brief intense exercise, low carbohydrate intake, punctuated eating (intermittent fasting), and restful sleep.  (Source:  The Paleo Solution)

Is the term for generally favorable biological responses to low exposures of toxins and other stressors.  A pollutant or toxin showing hormesis thus has the opposite effect in small doses as in large ones.  Exercise is a common example of hormesis in action:  the proper level of stress causes positive adaptation, while too much can be harmful.

Hormone that aids in physical recovery.  It’s primary activity is anabolic, or growth, activity.  It works with hGH to improve muscle mass and strength.  Poor diet can lead to abnormally high IGF-1 levels (we can have too much of a good thing), which in turn increases both our likelihood for cancer and our rate of aging.  (Source:  The Paleo Solution)

Hormone secreted by the pancreas.  Is critical in regulating blood sugar, body fat, and aging.  Basically, insulin is the hormone that puts nutrients into our cells.

Refers to any kind of “jumpstretch” band, helpful in both mobility drills and exercise scaling.

Are like small pieces of water soluble fat. Given time, most tissues in our bodies can shift their metabolism to burn ketones instead of glucose.  Some organs function better on ketones than glucose (read: heart, kidneys, and intestines).

Examples are Myristic, Palmitic, and Stearic. These are the same fatty acids we use to store energy in our own bodies – our own internal source of fuel. They are found in milk and the meat of ruminants.

Carries TAGs (fatty acids and glycerol) and cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body to be used for fuel and structural elements of cells. There are two types of LDL particles: large, puffy type – this is the beach ball-type. It floats benignly through our blood stream and is nonreactive. small, dense type – this is the BB-pellet type. They get stuck in the surface of the cells lining our arteries. When this happens, the immune system attacks what it thinks is a foreign molecule. Results in irritation, inflammation, and damage.

Saturated fats with fatty acids that have a chain length of 6 to 12. Found in coconut milk and mother’s milk. They are metabolized differently from LCSFAs. Do not require bile acids, and go directly to the liver via the portal vein. They also enhance the number of ketone bodies in the blood, even without a VLC ketogenic diet. (Source: The Paleo Solution)

MOB: A mobility drill set.  As WOD is to workout, MOB is to mobility work.

MOD: Movement of the Day.  Similar to WOD, with a focus on movement quality.  Coined by MovNat.

Used to refer to a personal observation or self-experiment. Nominally, N refers to the number of people included in a study.  When N=1, there was only one person involved (yourself), so whether or not the results would transfer to a wider population is yet to be determined.  Although to be taken with a grain of salt, I believe personal experimentation has some merit.

Oly: short-hand for the sport of “Olympic Weightlifting”, which consists of two lifts:  the snatch and the clean & jerk.

PUFA: Poly-unsaturated fatty acids.  n-3 and n-6 (Omega-3 and Omega-6)

Group of muscles, tendons, and ligaments on the posterior kinetic chain of the body (i.e. your backside).  The primary exercises for developing the P-chain are the Olympic lifts, squat, deadlift, etc. – the common denominator is an emphasis on hip extension.

This can refer to exercises or stretches done after your workout, but is mainly used to refer to post-workout nutrition (i.e. food/drink eaten within 30-45min. of finishing your workout.)

Rep (i.e. Repetition): A single cycle of lifting and lowering a weight (or body) in strength training.

In workout prescription, means to complete set number of rounds as quickly as possible.  I.e. 3 RFT would mean to complete 3 rounds of the different movements as quickly as possible.

Rx’d: Performing a workout as prescribed (w/o modifications.)

SAD: Standard American Diet.

Set: A group of repetitions in strength training.

Refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being bone.  Soft tissue includes:  tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, and synovial membranes (which are connective tissues) and muscles, nerves, and blood vessels (which are not connective tissue.)

A Tabata interval consists of 20 seconds of high intensity work, followed by 10 seconds of rest, repeated 8 times (total = 4 min.) all with the same movement.  It is a classic Hight Intensity Interval, though can be overused.

TECH: Short-hand for “technique drilling.”

VLC: Very Low Carbohydrate (Diet).

WOD: Workout Of the Day.

A good warm-up should do two things:  increase your heart rate, and prep your body for movement.  The best way to do this is with primitive movements as well as exercises similar to those you will be performing in the workout itself.

21-15-9 is three reps rounds, where the first round is 21 reps, the second round is 15 reps, followed by the third round with 9 reps.  If there are multiple exercises you should complete each of the exercises per the reps in that round, before dropping down to the next next rep round and repeating each of the exercises per the reps in that next round, and so on.  Source:  GymnasticsWOD.

This is a rep and set notation used for weight training.  Under this notation, the athlete will perform 5 sets of 5 reps of a given exercise, looking to increase the weight slightly with each set and build towards a maximum weight for the final 5-rep set.  This does not include warm up sets.  Allow adequate recovery between sets based on your goals (ex:  3-5 min. for maximal strength development; 1-3 minutes for muscle mass.)

This is a rep and set notation used for weight training.  The workout will consist of 5 sets of 5 reps of a given exercise.  Be careful not to confuse this with a 5-5-5-5-5.  [5×5] indicates that all the sets should be performed at the same weight (otherwise called a work set weight).  The goal is that the final reps of each set are challenging.  This does not include warm up sets.  Allow adequate recovery between sets based on your goals (ex: 3-5 min. for maximal strength development; 1-3 minutse for muscle mass.)

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